Alier, 11, a young cattle herder displaced by fighting in Bor town, stands covered with ash - used as a natural insect repellent - in a cattle camp outside Mingkaman where he, his family, and upwards of 100,000 other displaced civilians now live.
 Alem, 30, sits on the bed in the small room he now calls home in downtown Rome. Like thousands of his countrymen, he fled a lifetime of military service and a dictatorial government in his home of Eritrea.